General English

代词的使用,以避免性别歧视的写作

26 Apr 2020

代词喜欢它,我们,他们 ,和站在为名词,因此,必须相匹配的名词,他们在数(单数或复数)和性别(男或女)取代如果是单数名词,代词,必须过。

incorrect 每个人都需要以消除他们的财物。 每个人都是单数; 复数。)
tick1 每个人都需要删除他或她的财物。

  • 不要使用? 他?来指代一个名词-这是性别歧视的语言!
  • 在短短一个单一的代名词参考文件,我们建议您使用代替的名词。
  • 在一个较长的文件具有多个代名词引用,可以替代整个文件,以避免不断地重复, 他和她之间如果不为你工作,只需改写句子,所以你不需要做出选择

上面这句话也可以改写为:

tick1 您需要删除您的物品。
?
更改到一个多元化的主题也可以工作
tick1 员工需要,以消除他们的财物
 

三种常用的标点符号问题

29 Mar 2020
标点符号是很重要的,因为那些小标志是沿着一条巷道的迹象一样,帮助你的读者浏览你的文件。 当你把标点符号错了地方,它可以改变你的句子要表达的意思,并发送你的读者,在错误的方向。

这里有三种常用的标点符号问题。

1)把一个逗号之前? 和?系列中的(或省略逗号)

该公司生产的袖珍计算器,电子键盘,和Pocket翻译。
该公司生产的袖珍计算器,电子键盘和袖珍翻译。

这是正确的吗 两者都是。 无论您使用的串行逗号是完全取决于你。 关键是要一致。 请给它的决定,并坚持整个文档 不一致是语法错误。

2)使用一段时间后或结肠两个空格

这两个空间的规则是一个从天印刷机和打字机时使用的字母都相同的宽度超过举行。 今天,计算机弥补字母的不同宽度,只有一个空间后结束标点符号的偏好。

3)把主题和动词之间的逗号

incorrect 我认为比利,皮特和玛丽,参加本次会议。
?
在这句话,一个逗号分割的动词子句的主题比利,彼得和玛丽,参加
?
tick1 我认为比利,彼得和玛丽出席会议。
?
一个逗号后, 彼得也将确定在上面的句子。
 

一个小小的?与?小?与?少数?与?很少

15 Mar 2020

一点点

使用一点与不可数名词,例如一点点帮助,一点点进步一点点的信息,一点点意见等

使用数与复数可数名词,如几天,几个会议几个员工,几个销售

很少,很少

很少很少 ,往往是相当消极的,因为他们的意思没有太大的并不 多,而小和一些更积极, 意味着一些。 例如:

? incorrect 我们有几个客户 (音负面)
?
tick1 我们有几个客户 (听起来更积极)

incorrect 很少有时间来完成这个 (音负面)
tick1 我们有一点点的时间来完成 (听起来更积极)

当你给别人讲,最好是使用没有太大的/不是很多只有一小/而不是数很少很少,很少 ,很少往往声音更正式和写作中更好地使用 例如:

我们还没有很多我们的新产品的 查询(不是很多/非正式/口语
我们的新产品,我们有几个查询 (数/正式/书面)

在过去的一个月,我们没有出售的许多特性 。(没有很多/非正式/口语
我们在过去一个月内已售出数 (数/正式/写 属性。)

 

一般语法和写作技巧

01 Mar 2020
主题词和标题

关于标题和业务文件的主题标题,请记住,第一个和最后一个词总是大写的,因为都是名词,代词,动词,形容词和副词。

四个或更多的字母(或五,对引导您使用的样式而定)介词也大写。

?A?,?安?和??不大写,除非它们是第一个字或跟随一个冒号。

该协调连词:?和?,?或?,?也不是?,?但是?,?对?,?如此,?和?却?不大写,除非它们是第一个字或跟随一个冒号,但其他?小?字样,如?它?,?是?和?是?资本化。

形容词的比较级

为了使一个音节形容词的比较形式,加上?儿?和?- EST?,而不是使用的字眼是?多?和?最?。 例如:?纯净?和?最纯洁?,而不是?更纯?和?最纯洁的。?

短语开始用?包括?

阿语与?包括?,它通常在句子的末尾开始,几乎总是设置从句子的其余部分关闭一个逗号。 例:?提供一个包括预计成本和进度的详细解释。?

无论....或不

在大多数情况下,将?或不?字之后?是否?,如无用的句子:?我不能告诉是否海岸是明确的。? 这一判决是完全清楚无?或不?。 然而,在下面的句子,?或不?是必要的语法:?我们的目标是确保所有参加者从workshop?#21463;益??不管他们是否参加所有的会议?。

很多

?很多?总是写成两个词。 许多人写的一个字吧,也许是因为诸如?中?,?关于?和?沿?。 作为一个主题,?很多?是复数时,指的是一个复数词(?人在排队等候了很多?),但它是单数时,指的是单数字(?A大量信息时丢失计算机崩溃?)。

只有

而?只?字应放在它之前的词修改。 在讲话中,我们很少注意这个规则。 在写作中,我们应该的。 例如:?主席是只给一个星期的时间拿出一个计划?(不是?主席是只给一个星期的时间拿出一个计划?)。 ?只有?中明确强调?一个星期。?

 

应比应然不得不与必须与

02 Feb 2020
情态动词应,应该,而且必须用来显示所有义务。 实力的语气和义务的依据可以改变的模式正在被使用。

应与无用的 (轻度义务/强烈劝喻)

请看下面的句子:

应该去医院,伤口的。
应该去医院,伤口的。

在这两个句子中的功能应该,应是可互换的。 这两种义务集中强大的可取性,或者说一个温和。 您有责任照顾自己。 如今,使用应该是已经减弱,并在其常用的地方使用。

要与必须 (强义务/必要性)

下面是相同的句子情态动词使用,而且必须有

必须去医院,伤口的。
必须去医院,伤口的。

必须考虑,而且必须是强于应该应该做的 这两种模态进行必要的咨询职能,义务,甚至,但必须要 ,一般法律保留的表达式的相关。 例如:如果你拥有一辆汽车,你必须支付每年的道路税。 另一方面, 必须是通常保留给服从命令,人们有责任。 这里是典型的用法更多一些进一步的例子,而且必须有 :被认为是最强的模式。

必须缴纳所得税。
你要通过你的驾驶考试,才能单独驾驶。
必须出示护照入境时通过。

必须去工作,到9点。
必须得到这个报告30月完成。
必须出席了会议。

 

处理时间和日期介词

22 Dec 2019
介词用于有关的事物或人的时间,地点,方向和距离的各种方法。 这是很难正确地使用介词因为他们多数有多种用途和意义。

通读下面的例子将帮助你成为更熟悉的日期和时间的使用和意义的介词。

使用 AT +一特定时间


十一点半
下午二时三十分
此刻 ,他的辞职时间在

(但不是在以下方面:时间是什么'这是8点15分'。)

期间的一天

不, 介词与... 今晚

我很忙,今天早晨/下午/傍晚/今晚。

昨天没有介词与... 最后一个/下一个 ...

她对我说昨天下午。
我有一个请他从上周。
该会议已改于下周二。

但是请注意: 夜间

电源关闭夜间进行。

使用一个特殊的日子+ /日期

我发出的信息周一上午。
我们的新办公室 15日开幕。
德博拉忙到很晚星期三和星期五。
我们关闭办公室早圣诞节前夕。

在时间,在时间上的时候,在年底,年底前,就在最后

这些词组似乎类似,但有不同的含义。 看看下面的例子:

我的飞机抵达北京的时间 (它的到来在计划的时间。)
我的会议时间 (我在会议开始前到达。)
该报告完成是由于当时的客户在香港抵达香港。 (有什么别的事情之前结束。)
杰拉德是留 5 月底 (约30或31日。)
杰拉德将离开 5 月底 (5月31日前的任何日期。)

最后的手段'终于/作为一个最终的结果'

那里有很多的合同问题的, 所以最后我们没有签字。
 

使用标记的问题

24 Nov 2019

标签问题是小问题的声明添加到年底的一个例子,因为:

这是狗, 不是吗 ?

这种标签结构

这里有一系列问题的标签:

...,不是吗?
...,不是吗?
...,不应该吗?
...,不是吗?
...,是不是?
...,不是吗?

注意结构性要素:

  • 第一个元素包含一个动词,经常'是'或'做',也常常是重复的声明中所用的动词。
  • 动词是由负,在短期内形成。
  • 第二个元素是一个代名词。

使用标记的问题

使用标签的问题,强调和鼓励其他人同意你的观点。 他们把一个强有力的声明,把一个问题是很难不同意。

获得协议

作出强烈的声明,并添加一个标签的问题:

他们将完成,不是吗?
我对这份工作的最佳人选,不是吗?
这是最好的方式做到这一点,是不是?
她是最佳人选了,是不是?
有没有足够席位的会议,有没有?
我们应该买这台设备,尽快,不应该吗?

获得合格

开始与你希望其他人做的 ​​,然后结束的标记,如'你不'或者'不能你'。

你不会让我知道,你愿意吗?
你会来参加舞会,不会吧?
今天,你可以这样做,不是吗?
你不能强迫他这样做,可以吗?
 

使用的物品(1 / 1 /的)

07 Jul 2019

下面的提示,为使用物品的基本规则(1 / 1 /的)。 在接下来的一周,指的是当你阅读提示商业文件,杂志文章,网页,等等,在阅读中找到一些名词和使用技巧来分析文章的使用。

正确使用物品是一种技能,超过通过阅读大量的时间开发,写作,口语和听力。 想想下面的规则和铭记他们在阅读时,听你周围的语言。 很快你会发现你不必再对规则的思考。 用法将成为自然的你。

一般使用规则

名词

1 / 1

没有文章

可数
与复数

一信
发票


发票


可使

可数
与复数


可使

信件
发票

信件
发票

不可数的

不允许带入

信息

信息

(使用不定冠词1 / 1)

  • 使用或当它是我们第一次提到或谈论的东西。
  • 使用或名词奇异,可数。

难道你让我有一个信封?

我昨天了传真机。

你一封信。

(使用定冠词)

  • 使用时,读者是要明确什么是被提及。

请关闭大门

12月4日... ...

我们寄给您文件,要求在销售部。

  • 使用名词时已经提到了。
我收到一封信旺角分行我们从一个销售人员的客户抱怨1。客户说 ,推销员粗鲁的她,当她试图提出一个问题。 我会通过你的信上。
  • 使用只有一个事物时,它是明确的。
总经理来到我们办公室昨天。

零冠词

我们可以省略的文章时,可数名词复数generalising有关,也与不可数名词。

客户服务部负责处理投诉。(所有,任何投诉)

员工谁不遵守公司的规定将给予警告。(所有工作人员,所有公司的规定)

在5月开始生产。(不可数名词)

 

Using Precise Active Verbs

05 May 2019

Strengthen word choice at the word and sentence level by adding precise verbs. Avoid non-specific verbs and the overuse of is, are, was, were, I or we. Always look for verbs that are masked as nouns. Convert the noun back to a verb by using its root and rewrite the sentence.

Example

John Smith will contact you at 11.30 p.m.

Revised

John smith will send you an e-mail at 11.30 p.m.

Revised

John Smith will visit you at 11.30 p.m.

 

Example

We must consider this problem.

Revised

We must resolve this problem.

 

Example

The report is a summary of previous research on drinking.

Revised

The report summarises research on drinking.

 

Example

The copy editor made an improvement to the draft.

Revised

The copy editor improved the draft.

 

Example

John is responsible for the distribution of the daily marketing report.

Revised

John distributes the daily marketing report.

 

Example

Improvement of the invoicing system will be performed by Jane Smith.

Revised

Jane Smith will improve the invoicing system.

 

Example

Candidate interviewing and employment is done by Human Resources.

Revised

Human Resources interviews and employs all candidates.

 

Example

All credit card approval is done by Jane Smith.

Revised

Jane Smith approves credit cards.

 

Using Prepositions of Place

10 Mar 2019

Prepositions are used to relate things or people to various ways of time, place, direction and distance. It is difficult to use prepositions correctly as most of them have a variety of uses and meaning.

Reading through the examples below will help you to become more familiar with the uses and meanings of prepositions of place.

About (approximate position)

I have left the file lying about somewhere.

Around

The accounts department is around the corner.

At (place)

He spent Saturday afternoon at work.
He's staying at the Sheraton Hotel.
I'll meet you at the airport.

At (direction)

We have aimed our campaign at young professionals.

By (close to)

The warehouse is by the main post-office.
The new airport is located by the harbour.

From (source)

This car was imported from Japan.
Where did you get this software from?

In (three-dimensional space)

Los Angeles is in California
The money is kept in the safe.

On (two-dimensional line or surface)

The file is on the desk.
The notice is on the wall.
California is on the Pacific coast.

Through (direction between two points in space)

It can take a long time to clear goods through customs.
Once we're through the city, we'll be able to drive faster.

To (movement, destination)

I have to go to Singapore next week.
The taxi will take you to the airport.
I will bring you to the conference tomorrow.
 

"For" vs. "Since" vs. "Ago"

10 Feb 2019

FOR

We use for when we are talking about the duration of an action or state, i.e. how long something takes:

I have lived in London for seven years. (This tells us how long I have lived in London.)

For is a preposition here. Although generally used with the present perfect tense, for is also used with other tenses.

SINCE

We use since when we are talking about the time the action or state started:

I have lived in London since 1997. (This tells us when I started living in London.)

Since can be a preposition (since five o'clock) or a conjunction (since I met her). Since is usually used with the present perfect tenses.

AGO

Ago is used to say when past events happened, going back from today to the past:

I came to Japan seven years ago.
I passed my driving test two months ago.

Ago is an adverb and is used with the past tense.

 

Vertical Lists: Using Bullets or Numbers

13 Jan 2019

Use numbered lists when working with instructions that are to be carried out in sequence. If the sequence of items is not essential, use bullets.

Example of a Numbered List:

Follow these general steps when you plan a database:

  1. Decide on which categories of information you want to work with, and plan a separate database file for each category.
  2. Analyze your current information management system to determine the tasks to perform.
  3. Decide on the data you want the file to contain, and plan the fields to hold the data.
  4. Determine the relationship between your file and other files containing useful data.

Example of a Bulleted List:

Keep these points in mind:

  • Merge fields by typing the field name with symbols.
  • Use a text field to set data in the browser.
  • Add symbols among merged fields on the layout.
  • Format merged fields with the formatting option.
 

Removing Unnecessary Verb-Noun Combinations

30 Dec 2018

There is something about writing that makes us express ourselves more formally than we would do in speech. For example, you might chat with a co-worker about how you are going to evaluate a marketing campaign. But when you sit down to write a report about it, for some reason you find yourself writing about "the evaluation of the marketing campaign".

This habit, which we call nominalisation, is very common in all areas of government and the business world. What happens is that instead of using a verb, for example, to evaluate, the writer uses the related noun, evaluation.

You're probably thinking that there's nothing wrong with that, but nominalisations appear all over our writing. They lengthen our sentences and make the writing less lively, less human and more official. They prevent our writing being clear as actions are hidden in the nouns.

Here's an example:

Example: The programmer will be a new addition to our staff's expertise.
Revised:
The programmer will add to our staff's expertise.

Example: On this site you will learn how to find solutions to your writing problems.
Revised:
AdminWriting.com helps you solve your writing problems.

Of the verb-noun problems the "made" trap stands out as the most common:

  • made a suggestion (suggested)
  • made a recommendation (recommended)
  • made a choice (chose)
  • made an agreement (agreed)
  • made a presentation (presented)
  • made a proposition (proposed)
  • made a decision (decided)
  • made a revision (revised)

Other common verb-noun problems include:

  • gave an explanation (explained)
  • submitted a resignation (resigned)
  • expressed opposition (opposed)
  • took under consideration (considered)
  • provided maintenance (maintained)
  • reached a conclusion (concluded)
  • provided information (informed)
  • provided a quotation (quoted)
  • came to a realization (realized)
  • conducted an investigation (investigated)
  • put on a performance (performed)
  • led to a reduction (reduced)
  • had a suspicion (suspected)
  • had an expectation (expected)
  • used exaggeration (exaggerated)
  • gave authorization (authorized)

 

 

Usage of Commas

16 Dec 2018

 

1)

to separate independent clauses

The following conjunctions are used in such cases:

and, but, for, nor, or, so & yet¹

The workers demanded extra pay, but the management refused to give it.

2)

after introductory

a) sub-clauses

b) phrases
c) words

a) If you don't finish it tonight, you'll be late.
b) As a matter of fact, I'm going on vacation to Singapore next week.
c) Unfortunately, we aren't able to agree to all your demands.

3)

when

a) sub-clauses

b) phrases
c) words

appear in the middle of the sentence.

a) Jill, who was sitting behind her desk, gave Tim a smile.
b) We, as a matter of course, will contact your former employer.
c) We have, however, found a number of errors.

4)

to set off three or more words, phrases or main clauses in a series.


She went into the office, sat down at her desk, and started surfing the Net.
He's lived in London, Paris, Hong Kong, Tokyo and New York.

5)

to set off two or more coordinate adjectives if the meaning does not change when the order is altered.

We had to travel over several narrow, winding, dangerous roads.

6)

at the end of a sentence in order to indicate a pause.

He was just ignorant, not stupid.

7)

to set off a nonrestrictive (also non-defining) relative clause².

Unitech, which was established in 1992, employs over 750 workers.

8)

when someone is addressed directly.

Richard, can you do me a big favour?

9)

to show an appositive³.

Chris Patton, former governor of Hong Kong, is still very popular in Hong Kong.

10)

in dates.

Yes, May 11, 20xx, was the date of the last AGM.

11)

in front of tag questions.

You've met this client before, haven't you?

12)

after digits indicating thousands.


10,000
9,999,999

¹ Note that 'but' and 'and' do not take a comma when both clauses are relatively short.
²
restrictive relative clauses = they tell us which person or thing, or which kind of person or thing, is meant;
non-restrictive relative clauses = they tell us more about a person or thing that is already identified.
³
When an appositive is only one word, no comma is needed.

 

Which vs. That

07 Oct 2018

Which and that are difficult to learn for anyone studying English as a second language because no one, not even people who should know better, gets it right!

It all has to do with restrictive (or defining) phrases and clauses.

You use that to introduce a restrictive phrase or clause that describes a place or thing. Another term for restrictive is "defining". "Defining" is an easier way to remember the rule. Defining phrases and clauses add ESSENTIAL detail to a sentence. They are never introduced with a comma, because they are essential to the description.

For example:

A: Which briefcase belongs to you?
B: The briefcase that is marked "KF" belongs to me.

Note: "that is marked" describes the briefcase.

Which introduces unrestricted or undefining phrases and clauses. These phrases add EXTRA detail that you can omit without changing the sentence. They are introduced and concluded with commas.

For example:

A: Tell me about the book you read.
B: The book, which I got from the library last week, is a very exciting mystery.

Note: "which I got from the library" is an unnecessary detail.

 
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